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The third edition of Carroll Tyminski's Your Early Childhood Practicum and Student Teaching Experience: Guidelines for Success is infused with a realness .
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The first pairing was comprised of Lien 1 and Alison.

Your Early Childhood Practicum and Student Teaching Experience: Guidelines for Success

Lien was a Taiwanese student in her late thirties who had lived in New Zealand on and off for the past decade. She had a background in commerce and was in her final year of a three-year degree qualification.


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She had passed all of her other practicum experiences in her previous two years. Alison, her associate teacher, was an experienced head teacher of an early childhood centre which operated in a highly multicultural community. The second dyad was Jiao and Lucy. Jiao was in her late 20s and had lived in New Zealand for ten years, coming here for her tertiary education immediately following secondary school in China.

She already had a commerce degree from a New Zealand university, and was completing a one-year Graduate Diploma in Early Childhood Education. Lucy, her associate teacher, had been involved in the early childhood sector since leaving school. She was particularly interested in infant and toddler care, and her career had reflected this.

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The third and final pairing was Arjun and Shelley. Arjun had lived in New Zealand for two years. He was born and raised in India and had a career there as a mathematics teacher of primary school children. Although he was able to become a registered teacher in New Zealand with his existing teaching qualification, he had difficulty finding employment. He decided to gain a New Zealand qualification that would assist him in understanding the system here from its foundation. He was about to begin his third and final practicum of a one-year Graduate Diploma qualification.

Early Childhood Student Teaching Experiences

His associate teacher, Shelley, had worked in the early childhood sector since leaving school and specialised in infant and toddler care. Like the other two associate teachers, she was of New Zealand European descent. The practicum for each student lasted for five weeks and was assessed using set competency criteria from the initial teacher education provider. For all six participants, success instead was a personally experienced, positive phenomenon.

For example, Lien did not pass this practicum experience according to the competencies outlined by her ITE institution, but both she and Alison considered it to be a highly successful experience. Before it began, Lien reflected upon her previous practicum experiences and concluded that success for herself was two-pronged: feeling positive in herself, as well as learning something new.

I learnt something in this placement. And I build very positive relationships with children and staff. I am included as a team member. I feel very comfortable staying here. I feel like if you get more encouragement, you will become more confident. Jiao also did not factor external criteria into considering her personal success during practicum.

Although she did indeed formally pass, she instead focussed upon being acknowledged for her contribution and gaining the mutual respect of her associate teacher, rather than simply meeting the required competency levels. The most important thing is the respect. I have respectful associate teachers and they say the foundation to build the relationship with each other is mutual respect.

So if the associate teacher and the student teacher are not from the same cultural background, they also respect [… each other. So inclusive, both parties together, I think respect is the foundation. Arjun had similar views. He considered his practicum to be successful if he developed self-confidence and acceptance as a teacher by other staff, children and parents. When we feel confidence, and if we are able to [convey] that confidence [to the] associate teacher, and more important, children and parents, then we are successful.

It does not matter if we pass from this course, it is more important for parents and children, they accept us as a teacher, then we are successful.

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These findings replicate previous research on the practicum expectations of immigrant Asian student teachers. Positive personal affect was also highly valued by the associate teachers. Alison and Lucy particularly focused on confidence. If a student has learnt and can go away feeling a bit better about themselves, you know, a bit more positive, then great.

So it can be seen that none of the participants considered the external formal assessment as being immediately relevant to the success of their own experience. This makes apparent the tension of using externally-imposed criteria to try to measure an interpersonal experience. If participants did not feel successful, they did not consider the practicum to be successful. The meaning of success could not be imposed from an external source. Instead, it needed to be developed through the social interactions of the people concerned. It was impossible to ignore the effect of cultural and linguistic differences upon teaching practicum.

A State-by-State Look at Preschool Teacher Education Requirements

Possibly as a result of the deeply engrained beliefs Lien had learnt growing up in Taiwan, her teaching practices sometimes focussed on interactions with children as direct-teaching moments using closed questions as a teaching strategy, rather than allowing the child to lead their own learning. I feel like maybe I can try to talk about [it], because he was interested in the worms, so maybe I can discuss something more about worms.

Not only talk about what he made, but maybe I can extend his thoughts, his interest more.


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  8. She asked some questions at the end of it. There possibly was an opportunity a little earlier on to clarify some of the things he was saying, to get a better idea perhaps, without actually detracting from his conversation. It was kinda just random comments about worms really rather than questions.

    Cultural difference extended further than simply the choice of teaching strategies used with children. Indeed, Jiao perceived that the very way she looked and sounded as an adult in her centre affected her ability to teach successfully. In previous practicums, she did not consider that she had developed deep relationships with children because her physical appearance and English communication abilities played a role in affecting their development. I think probably I look different from other teachers and the English I try to express, explain, is different — the words. So [I am] kind of being excluded by the children.

    This impacted on the depth of feedback or support she could give him during the day. Because when he started on a really big conversation his accent would get quite thick and it would get quite hard to understand him, and people were worried they were offending him.

    This communication barrier meant that she was unable to have in-depth conversations with him to support the development of his practice. She would try several times to communicate her message, but would give up if unsuccessful. Similarly, if asked a question, she would give an answer to what she hoped she had understood him to say. The culturally based expectations of students and the implied role of teachers have been deeply engrained from birth. To be challenged in them, to understand their origins, and to change behaviour to meet local expectations is not something that occurs naturally or quickly.

    All such culturally-based perceptions are very deeply held, and difficult to change Guo, ; Hawkey, Recognising that these assumptions exist is important for both associate and student to acknowledge and articulate Greenfield, It is important to recognise how they can influence practice on a daily basis. They are reflected in our behaviours every day, often without thought. Indeed, even experienced New Zealand-born teachers could struggle to recognise and acknowledge these influences on their practice.

    So, to expect that a migrant teacher-in-training could undertake this process successfully within, say, a five- week practicum period could be overly challenging. The same concerns around language comprehension have arisen across similarly focussed research.